A
Air/Aerial: Riding the board briefly into the air above the wave, landing back upon the wave, and continuing to ride.

B
Bail: To step off of the board in order to avoid being knocked off (a wipe out).
Beach break: An area where waves that are good enough to surf break just off a beach, or on a sandbar farther out.
Blank: The block from which a surfboard is created.
Blown out: When waves that would otherwise be good have been rendered too choppy by wind.
Bomb: An exceptionally large set wave.
Bottom turn: The first turn at the bottom of the wave.

C
Carve: Turns (often accentuated).
Caught inside: When a surfer is paddling out and cannot get past the breaking surf to the safer part of the ocean (the outside) in order to find a wave to ride.
Choppy, chop: Waves that are subjected to cross winds have a rough surface (chop) and do not break cleanly.
Close-out: A wave is said to be “closed-out” when it breaks at every position along the face at once, and therefore cannot be surfed.
Cross step: crossing one leg over the other across the board (usually to make it to the nose).
Cutback: A turn cutting back toward the breaking part of the wave.

D
Deck: The upper surface of the board.
Ding: A dent or hole in the surface of the board resulting from accidental damage.
Drop in: Dropping into (engaging) the wave, most often as part of standing up.
Duck dive: Pushing the board underwater, nose first, and diving under an oncoming wave instead of riding it.

F
Face: The forward-facing surface of a breaking wave.
Fade: On take-off, aiming toward the breaking part of the wave, before turning sharply and surfing in the direction the wave is breaking.
Fin or Fins: Fin-shaped inserts on the underside of the back of the board that enable the board to be steered.
Fins-free snap (or “fins out”): A sharp turn where the surfboard’s fins slide off the top of the wave.
Flat: No waves.
Floater: Riding up on the top of the breaking part of the wave, and coming down with it.

G
Gas chamber: The effect when a big wave rolls over, enclosing a temporary horizontal tunnel of air with the surfer inside.
Glassy: When the waves (and general surface of the water) are extremely smooth and glossy, not disturbed by wind.
Gnarly: Large, difficult, and dangerous (usually applied to waves).
Goofy foot: Surfing with the left foot on the back of board (less common than regular foot).
Grom/Grommet: A young surfer.

H

Hang-five/hang ten: Putting five or ten toes respectively over the nose of a longboard.
Hang Heels: Facing backwards and putting the surfers’ heels out over the edge of a longboard.
Hang-loose: Generally meaning “catch that wave” or “well done”. This message can be sent by raising a hand with the thumb and pinkie fingers up while the index, middle and ring fingers remain folded over the palm, then twisting the wrist back and forth as if waving goodbye, see shaka sign.

K
Kook: A wanna-be surfer of limited skill.

L
Leash: A cord that is attached to the back of the board, the other end of which wraps around the surfer’s ankle.
Line-up: The area where most of the waves are starting to break and where most surfers are positioned in order to catch a wave.

N
Nose: The forward tip of the board.

O
Off the hook: A positive phrase meaning the waves are a very good size and shape.
Off the Top: A turn on the top of a wave, either sharp or carving.
Outside: The part of the water’s surface that is farther from the shore than the area where most waves are breaking.
Over the falls: When a surfer falls off the board and the wave sucks him or her up in a circular motion along with the lip of the wave. Also referred to as the “wash cycle”, being “pitched over” and being "sucked over ».

P
Pearl: Accidentally driving the nose of the board underwater, generally ending the ride.
Point break: Area where an underwater rocky point creates waves that are suitable for surfing.
Pop-up: Going from lying on the board to standing, all in one jump.
Pump: An up/down carving movement that generates speed along a wave.

Q
Quiver: A surfer’s collection of boards for different kinds of waves.

R
Rag dolled: When underwater, the power of the wave can shake the surfer around as if he/she were a rag doll.
Rails: The side edges of the surfboard.
Re-entry: Hitting the lip vertically and re-reentering the wave in quick succession.
Regular/Natural foot: Surfing with the right foot on the back of the board.
Rocker: How concave the surface of the board is from nose to tail.
Rolling, Turtle Roll: Flipping a longboard up-side-down, nose first and pulling through a breaking or broken wave when paddling out to the line-up (a turtle roll is an alternative to a duck dive).

S
Sections: The parts of a breaking wave that are rideable.
Set waves: A group of waves of larger size within a swell.
Shoulder: The unbroken part of the wave.
Smack the Lip / Hit the Lip: After performing a bottom turn, moving upwards to hit the peak of the wave, or area above the face of the wave.
Snaking, drop in on, cut off, or “burn”: When a surfer who doesn’t have the right of way steals a wave from another surfer by taking off in front of someone who is closer to the peak (this is considered inappropriate).
Snaking/Back-Paddling: Stealing a wave from another surfer by paddling around the person’s back to get into the best position.
Snap: A quick, sharp turn off the top of a wave.
Soul arch: Arching the back to demonstrate casual confidence when riding a wave.
Stall: Slowing down by shifting weight to the tail of the board or putting a hand in the water. Often used to stay in the tube during a tube ride.
Surf’s up: A phrase used when there are waves worth surfing.
Swell: A series of waves that have traveled from their source in a distant storm, and that will start to break once the swell reaches shallow enough water.
Switch-foot: Having equal ability to surf regular foot or goofy foot (i.e. left foot forward or right foot forward), like being ambidextrous.

T
Tail: The back end of the board.
Take-off: The start of a ride.
Tandem surfing: Two people riding one board. Usually the smaller person is balanced above (often held up above) the other person.
Tube riding/Getting barreled: Riding inside the hollow curl of a wave.

W
Wax: Specially formulated surf wax that is applied to upper surface of the board to increase the traction so the surfer’s feet do not slip off of the board.
Wetsuit: Often referred to as “rubber”, sometimes surfers also wear a neoprene hood and booties in cold conditions.
Whitewater: After the wave has finished breaking, it continues on as a ridge of turbulence and foam, the whitewater.
Wipe out: Falling off, or being knocked off, the surfboard when riding a wave.

(From Wikipedia)